��O�Ŗ�A0��c�. The final step was for the sheriffs and Judges of Peace to read it in Church and have all present sign it, which should be all of the population as they were obligated to go to church every Sunday under penalty of fine. Purkiss, Diane, The English Civil War: A People's History, London: Harper Perennial, 2007. 1995. The House of Commons had passed the bill on the 21st of April and the House of Lords gave it a second reading on the 27th April. 48 0 obj<>stream Protestation Returns 1641-42 for Kingston Bagpuize 1641 oath of allegiance to Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion. [22] On one side, the Cavaliers or Loyalists were followers of the Church of England that wanted to maintain the traditional forms of government in Church and State based on the monarch. [6] However, upon Strafford's failures in the battlefield and economic shortcomings from the expenses both English and Scottish armies, as Charles I was the King of both, he followed the advice of his Magnum Concillium, the House of Lords when the Parliament was not in section, and recalled Parliament to increase taxes and raise a new army to defeat the Scottish rebellion. The Protestation Return of 1641/2. In July 1641, a resolution of Parliament requested all males over 18 years to take an oath of allegiance in support of the Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion, to oppose the 'plots and conspiracies of priests and Jesuits' that were allegedly subverting the kingdom. _ do, in the presence of Almighty God, promise, vow, and protest to maintain, and defend as far as lawfully I may, with my Life, Power and Estate, the true Reformed Protestant religion, expressed in the Doctrine of the Church of England, against all Popery and Popish Innovations, within this Realm, contrary to the same Doctrine, and according to the duty of my Allegiance, to His Majesties Royal Person, Honour and Estate, as also the Power and Privileges of Parliament, the lawful Rights and Liberties of the Subjects, and any person that maketh this Protestation, in whatsoever he shall do in the lawful Pursuance of the same: and to my power, and as far as lawfully I may, I will oppose and by all good Ways and Means endeavour to bring to condign Punishment all such as shall, either by Force, Practice, Councels, Plots, Conspiracies, or otherwise, doe any thing to the contrary of any thing in this present Protestation contained: and further, that I shall, in all just and honourable ways, endeavour to preserve the Union and Peace betwixt the Three Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland: and neither for Hope, Fear, nor other Respect, shell relinquish this Promise, Vow and Protestation."[11]. County map CAMBRIDGESHIRE: The Protestation Returns 1641-42 and other contemporary listings This page deals with the Protestation Returns 1641-42 for Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely and other associated listings covering 171 parishes. The House of Commons had passed the bill on the 21st of April and the House of Lords gave it a second reading on the 27th April. Whiteman, Anne The Protestation Returns of 1641–1642’. As conflicts escalated, both sides suspected of each other. [16] Soon afterwards, Pym proposed a Bill of Attainder on Strafford to execute him, which after some resistance was approved by the House of Commons and the House of Lords on 21 April 1641. It reached the British Isles during the reign of Henry VIII, when multiple acts of Parliament on religious reform were passed, ultimately leading to the Break with Rome in 1534, when the Act of Supremacy was passed. The only part of Cheshire listed was Chester. A part from its implications in population census and local historiography, it provides an understanding of how people during the decade of 1640 attempted to avoid a potentially costly and bloody conflict. From this, stemmed the first oath of allegiance to King Charles I and to the Protestant Reformation in the Church of England. The Protestation Return for Devon, 1641 Some men did not sign the Protestation themselves: (Westerne, John, Westerne, John and Westerne, Thomas) Richard Maunder being sick took and acknowledged the protestation the same day and year at home in his bed before Andrew Hosegood, constable and John Waterman, churchwarden. [13] However, it was not an effective way of distinguishing Catholics, as some of them signed the oath with reservations to their faith, while other Protestants refused to sign it at all. Religiously, the 16th and 17th centuries were a period of vast changes and religious conflicts. Protestation Returns 1641. It was agreed and ordered on the 3rd May 1641, that every Member of the House of Commons should make a protestation (declaration of loyalty), which the House of Lords also agreed to the following day. By forcing all Englishmen above 18 years old to sign an oath of allegiance to King Charles I and to the Church of England, the hope was that they would unite under the King and not engage on a potentially bloody internal conflict. From then on, Parliament was split into two factions - Royalists (Cavaliers) who supported the King and Parliamentarians (Roundheads) who … Charles and royalists were distrustful and resented by the continuous Parliamentary demands, which they saw as against the king's royal prerogative and position. Protestation Returns St Keverne Cornwall 1641 Press Ctrl+F to Find ? The Protestation Returns, 1641-1642, and Other Contemporary Listings: Collection in Aid of Distressed Protestants in Ireland; Subsidies; Poll Tax; Assessment Or … Carlton, Charles, Archbishop William Laud, London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1987. However, on 18 January 1642, following King Charles I's attempt to arrest the Five Members of Parliament[12] on 4 January, the speaker of the House of Commons William Lenthall sent out an additional letter to sheriffs across England demanding that all males over 18 years old to take the oath. For an explanation of the background please read the Protestation Oath. Wedgwood, C. V., The King's War: 1641–1647, London: Fontana, 1970. Use thisguide if you can trace your ancestors back to 1642, and you know which countryand parish they live in. Their outcome was the beheading of king Charles, the temporary suspension of kingship under Oliver Cromwell's rule, and the English Restoration under Charles II, showing the complexity of events and general social anxiety reigning during Stuart England. [4] The House of Commons and the House of Lords instead, led by John Pym, focused instead on protesting against the government and were quickly dissolved by Charles as an attack against the King, being known as the Short Parliament. Howard T.L. All males over the age of 18 were required to sign a declaration (or oath) "to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberty and rights of subjects and the priviliges of Parliament". relinquish this Promise, Vow and Protestation." 0000004644 00000 n PROTESTATION RETURN 1641/2. Neither party was able to develop the conflicts further at this point, as the Irish, fearing the imposition of Protestantism in their Catholic land rebelled and that country descended into chaos. Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, History of England from the Accession of James I to the Outbreak of the Civil war 1603–1642, Vol.9 1883. The other, Elezein, is unknown. 0 [23], https://www.cornwall-opc-database.org/extra-searches/protestation-returns/protestation-oath-of-1641/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Protestation_of_1641&oldid=947619567, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Further, it was ineffective in uniting the realm under Charles I and averting a civil war, as the English Civil Wars began shortly after. This page was last edited on 27 March 2020, at 12:57. on this page. Walter, John, Understanding Popular Violence in the English Revolution: The Colchester Plunderers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. One of the ways they found to do that was via oath of allegiances, the first of which was the Protestation. Protestation Returns in Cornwall (1641) Home Page Family History Social/Political Events Background to the Protestation Returns Ball Family Start 20 June 2012. The Protestation Return’ for Monkwearmouth taken on 24 February, 1641 are set out below: 0000001450 00000 n Parliament forced him to make changes in the Constitution which gave them a bigger say in how the country was governed. Once more under the leadership of John Pym, it began to vote on laws that would limit royal power, such as with the prohibition on taxation without Parliamentary consent and the control of Parliament over the King's ministers. 0000000951 00000 n Given the outcome of the conflicts between Charles I and Parliament, it is clear in hindsight that the Protestation failed and was always bound to do so, but for people at the time under the constraints that they were under and being ignorant of the future, the Protestation was a valid try at avoiding a costly civil war. Those that were not willing to sign it were also listed under it as refusing to pledge its oath. [21] As Summer advanced, negotiations between King and Parliament did not lead to fruition and the stalemate remained. By the end of 1640, King Charles I had become very unpopular. GENUKI/Devon is now at http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/DEV http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/DEV summoned Parliament to help him out of a financial crisis. It was written on 3 May 1641 and passed in Parliament, soon all members of the House of Commons had swore under it and on the following day, so did the members of the House of Lords. 0000000784 00000 n The names of those that have taken the Protestation within the Parrish of Yapton, by the Minister, Churchwardens and Overseers of the Parrish aforesaid. This page deals with the Protestation Returns 1641-42 for Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely and other associated listings covering 171 parishes. Reacting to scares and anxiety that the Protestant Reformation was in danger of being replaced, especially due to the Catholic influence around King Charles I, a ten-man committee of the House of Commons was selected to draft a national declaration. The events of 1640/41 led to the Civil War which began in August 1642. 0000002177 00000 n 2005. Coward, Barry, The Stuart age: England, 1603–1714, Harlow: Pearson Education, 2003. Protestation returns refer to lists of English males over age 18, noting if they took the Protestant oath of allegiance, which says, in part, that you pledge to ‘live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberties and rights of subjects and the privilege of Parliaments’. xref THE PROTESTATION RETURN OF 1641/2. x�b```�� 2džA���b,@��A%��P��9�H5�6�Ő 30�0�3Z�,��!�@|�f��n-� `)Vf�o@� �-����YIH3���d`6[e�0 �� Sloat 1973 Page Parish Name 283 Kingswear, Robert Wheaton 290 Mary Church, Edward Wheaton 300 North Bovey, William Wheaton 315 Heavitree, Roger Wheaton 329 St. Mary Steps, Exeter, Gilbert Wheaton 338 Trinity Exeter, William Wheaton 364 Topsham, John Wheaton 428 Chawleigh, Giles Wheaten 429 Coldridge,… Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Fifth Report of The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts. preserve the Union and Peace betwixt the Three . In 1641, amid fears of the Protestant Reformation being in danger of being undone, alleged Papist plots, and Catholic influence under the court of Charles I, the House of Commons during the Long Parliament was ordered by royal decree to prepare a national declaration to help reduce the tensions across England on the matter. Most Englishmen, however, remained Catholic and conflicts and anxiety lingered. Sloat 1973 Page Parish Name 283 Kingswear, Robert Wheaton 290 Mary Church, Edward Wheaton 300 North Bovey, William Wheaton 315 Heavitree, Roger Wheaton 329 St. Mary Steps, Exeter, Gilbert Wheaton 338 Trinity Exeter, William Wheaton 364 Topsham, John Wheaton 428 Chawleigh, Giles Wheaten 429 Coldridge,… May of 1641 it was agreed and ordered that every Member of the House of Commons and the House of Lords should make a protestation (declaration of loyalty) to the crown. Its intent was to prevent the conflicts between both factions from turning into a costly civil war.[9]. Ultimately it failed and tensions continued to escalate between Parliament and King Charles I, eventually leading to the start of the English Civil Wars in August 1642. [18] Further, it prohibited any source of increased revenue for the Crown without Parliament consent, such as Charles I's Ship Tax. Finally, it did not allow Parliament to distinguish between Catholics and Protestants, due to the disparity between those that signed the list and known Catholics, as per the recusancy lists. Still in May 1641, the Long Parliament passed the Triennial Acts, demanding that Parliament meet at least at every three years, even without a Royal summons. Returns survive only for the University, none for the county. H��VMo�F���$2M��*� ��6vc�p���"W��䮺KZQ~}�,I}�VۓIkw��{�fx~O�ߟ��n�(�.�f� iىHQ����xv�˸s�!E/:a������5�R�( It happened not once, but three times until the civil wars broke out. preserve the Union and Peace betwixt the Three . The Protestation Returns are the closest record we have to a census from 1642. trailer [7] This Parliament is known as the Long Parliament, as it met for twenty years between 1640 and 1660. [15], Following the failure of the 1641 Protestation, the Long Parliament tried two more times to organize an oath of allegiance to King Charles and the Church of England, but they saw the same fate as its predecessor. Extracted from Devon Protestation Returns 1641 by A.J. T he English Revolution (1640-60) began in November 1640 when Charles 1st. THE PROTESTATION RETURN OF 1641/2 . The Protestation was printed and then distributed by the Members to their counties. In 1641 a resolution of Parliament requested all males aged over 18 to take an oath in support of the Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion, to oppose the “plots and conspiracies of priests and Jesuits” that were allegedly subverting the kingdom. Had it been successful as an oath of allegiance, its two successors, the Vow and Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant, would not have been necessary. [14] The lists were returned to Parliament later in 1642, being known the Protestation Returns. Carlton, Charles, Charles I: The Personal Monarch, Great Britain: Routledge, 1995. Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland: and . You mightalso find this guide useful is you’re interested in a locality generally. [5] Charles decided to go on the offensive against the Scottish revolt without Parliament and recalled Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford from Ireland to lead his army in Scotland. An article by Tony Hadland for Catholic Ancestor, February 1997 On the 3rd of May 1641, fifteen months before the outbreak of the Civil War, the House of Commons drew up a Protestation Oath with six stated objectives: To defend "the true Reformed Protestant Religion, expressed in the doctrine of the Church of England, against… Part I, Appendix 3. %%EOF At the end of February or the beginning of March 1641 incumbents read out the Protestation in the parish churches. 35 0 obj <> endobj Not affected by this, John Pym was able to obtain notes from the King's Privy Council where Strafford claimed that Charles I was absolved from the rules of government because he had done his duty and his subject failed on theirs, thus Charles was allowed to use his army that was in Ireland to suppress all revolts against him. By order of the House of Commons, all adult men were asked to swear an oath of allegiance to the Protestant religion in 1642. endstream endobj 47 0 obj<>/Size 35/Type/XRef>>stream [1] That national declaration became the Protestation of 1641 and was, in fact, the first of three oaths of allegiance imposed by the Long Parliament between May 1641 and September 1643, being followed by Vow and Covenant and Solemn League and Covenant. In political terms, Charles was forced to end his Personal Rule and call Parliament to increase taxes so he could raise an army to put them revolts in Scotland and Ireland down. this present Protestation contained: and further, that I . Strafford had successfully controlled the Irish revolt by convincing the Catholic gentry to pay taxes in exchange of future religious benefits, thus increasing the revenue of Charles I and pacifying Ireland. Transcribed from original returns on microfilm by Tony Higgins. "The Protestation Oath of 1641". On the context of the English Civil Wars, the Protestation is an interesting, but often unexplored topic. Charles I, attempting to end his Parliamentary problems once and for all, marched into Parliament on 4 January 1642, with 400 soldiers planning to arrest the Five Members of Parliament, leaders behind the demands of Parliament. On the 6th May 1641 a Bill was introduced in the House of Commons imposing the signing of the Protestation on all Englishmen of 18 years and above. The Protestation of 1641 was an attempt to avert the English Civil War. [8] Even though the Members of Parliament were strongly opposed to Charles I, they also attempted to enact legislation to reduce tensions and avert the likelihood that an armed conflict between the King and Parliament, the first of them being called as the Protestation. summoned Parliament to help him out of a financial crisis. The Return includes the names of two Bulleids: John, who is probably the John Bulleid who married Armynell Jeffery in Winkleigh in 1606 and died there if 1645. <]>> Charles I initially refused to sign it, and without his signature Strafford would be safe. For an explanation of the background please read the Protestation Oath; The source for this transcription is "Cornwall Protestation Returns 1641" from a transcript (circa 1914) by Reginald Morshead Glencross, additional material by H L Douch, edited and published by T L Stoate 1974; The wildcard (%) is applied by default to the right hand side of some search terms. Extracted from Devon Protestation Returns 1641 by A.J. Although Parliament only asked for the names of men aged over 18, in … The Protestation Returns of 1641/2 and the Hearth Tax records which start in 1662 are two of the most important sources to genealogists pursuing their enquiries into the 17th century, especially as many of the parish records are incomplete during the period of upheaval which followed the outbreak of the English Civil War. shall, in all just and honourable ways, endeavour to . It was hoped that with the execution of Strafford and the Protestation, tensions between Parliament and King would be deescalated, but the opposite occurred. However, these lists have been useful to historians as a partial census of population, a guideline to estimate it, an important tool for genealogists in search of ancestors from before the English Civil Wars, and for academics interested in last name distributions before the civil wars erupted. By the end of 1640, King Charles I had become very unpopular. In July 1641, a resolution of Parliament requested all males over 18 years to take an oath of allegiance in support of the Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion, to oppose the 'plots and conspiracies of priests and Jesuits' that were allegedly subverting the kingdom. Taken in 1641-1642, these Protestation Returns are the nearest there is (for the next two hundred years) to a widespread census of adult males. 0000002900 00000 n [20] Just a few days afterwards, Charles I fled London for the country for his safety, while cities and towns declared itself for one of the factions, although most of England remained neutral. 0000028677 00000 n From then on, Parliament was split into two factions - … %PDF-1.4 %���� The Protestation Returns survive for about a third of English counties" I went to see if there would be one for all of Cheshire and it was not listed. In 1642 Parliament ordered all males in England and Wales over the age of 18 to take an oath “ to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberties and rights of subjects, and the privilege of Parliament”.. One of the purposes of the protestation was to identify Roman Catholics.. The following is an extract from the Protestation Return for Winkleigh, Devon, by courtesy of Dr Peter Lyne. It began in May 1641 with the intention of getting all Englishmen above the age of 18 to swear a vow to defend King Charles I and the Church of England. Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland: and . All who refused to sign were deemed unfit to hold office in Church or Commonwealth. The Protestation also fits in the timeline of the English Civil Wars, which shook the realm and altered its relationships. As further changes and armed conflict loomed closer, both Parliament and those loyal to the king attempted to find ways to avoid it. neither for Hope, Fear nor other Respect, shall . The House of Commons had passed the bill on the 21st of April and the House of Lords gave it a second reading on the 27th April. All males over the age of 18 were required to sign a declaration (or oath) "to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberty and rights of subjects and the priviliges of Parliament". Imagine how great it could be to find a list of our Palin ancestors from 1641 in a new database! 118 (447): 583-616. doi:10.1093/ehr/118.477.583. Protestation Returns 1641/2 In 1641, Parliament organised a national protest aimed at Charles I. In the seventeenth century the year began on 25 March so ‘6 th March 1641′ is towards the end of 1641 and is 6 March 1642 in our calendar. Rather than being an instrument against internal conflicts, it fed on them when Speaker Lenthall send the additional letter demanding that all men above 18 years old sign the oath as a response to Charles I's attempt to arrest the Five Members of Parliament. Ultimately, the Protestation failed to accomplish its goals. 0000003142 00000 n At this time, however, Parliament was still focusing its efforts against bad counselors that were blamed for Charles I's failures, and not the King himself. Their names were duly inscribed in a list in each parish, and the list sent back to Parliament. Kelsey (2003). Learn if your ancestor took the oath of allegiance to the Protestant religion as well as where your ancestor lived. [19] Soon, rumors began circulating that Charles I was backing the Irish rebels and that he at anytime would turn against Puritans, just as Strafford had suggested, thus spreading panic across the Puritans. The source for this transcription is "Cornwall Protestation Returns 1641" from a transcript (circa 1914) by Reginald Morshead Glencross, additional material by H L Douch, edited and published by T L Stoate 1974. However, they had fled and Charles was not able to arrest them for treason. Protestation Returns 1641-42 for Kingston Bagpuize 1641 oath of allegiance to Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion. What followed was 9 years of civil wars between 1642 and 1651, the first one ending when Charles I was placed under Parliament custody and put to trial. relinquish this Promise, Vow and Protestation." Sherwood, Roy Edward, Oliver Cromwell: King In All But Name, 1653–1658, New York: St Martin's Press, 1997. Then, letters were sent from the speaker of the House of Commons to sheriffs of each Parish communicating them about the decision and for them to also swear into it, as well as the Judges of Peace. However, on 10 May, fearing the safety of his family, Charles I signed it and Strafford was decapitated two days later.[17]. Cornwall OPC Database. Lenthall's assumption was that those that refused to do so would be Catholics and thus unfit to occupy an office in the Church or State of England, as well as to facilitate identifying potential backers of King Charles I across England. Transcribed from original returns on microfilm by Tony Higgins. O ne of the purposes of the protestation was to identify Roman Catholics. Starting in 1517, the Protestant Reformation of Martin Luther began the process of ending the Catholic hegemony in Western faith and its political consequences. A full list of the 85 parishes that have been transcribed into EXCEL Format is given below the following transcription from Little Petherick. 0000003218 00000 n The Long Parliament, however, would turn out to be more hostile against Charles I's interests than the Short Parliament had been. English Historical Review. x�bbba`b``�%0 B Q The returns relate to the years 1641- 42, around the start of the Civil War.The Protestation was an Oath of loyalty to Parliament and to the King, and was originally drawn up and taken by the members of the House of Commons on 3rd of May 1641, the following day the … 0000000576 00000 n Middlesex Protestation Returns 1641-42 Discover your early English ancestor on the Protestation Returns of 1641-1642. startxref "The Trial of Charles I". 0000000016 00000 n Parliament forced him to make changes in the Constitution which gave them a bigger say in how the country was governed. Most men took the oath and those who refused to sign (mostly Catholics) were sometimes also listed. Signing them was a necessity in order to hold public office. The Protestation Returns owe their existence to the unrest which prevailed in Parliament during the passage of the bill for the Attainder of the Earl of Strafford in 1641. 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Refused to sign it, and Ireland: and ) were sometimes also listed under it as refusing pledge. Its intent was to prevent the conflicts between both factions from turning into a costly Civil War:,. Have been transcribed into EXCEL Format is given below the following transcription from Little Petherick conflicts. Was the Protestation Return for Winkleigh, Devon, by courtesy of Dr Peter Lyne can be divided political. From Little Petherick that Charles I wanted to impose Armianism on them and force to! Is given below the following transcription from Little Petherick I initially refused to sign under it as refusing to its... Background to the King attempted to find a list in each parish, Ireland!, by courtesy of Dr Peter Lyne and religious conflicts census from 1642 not any! Education, 2003 an interesting, but three times until the Civil Wars broke out ] the lists were to... Their counties: the Colchester Plunderers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999 Routledge... Sign under it as refusing to pledge its oath I raised his prerogative... Back to 1642, Charles, Charles, Archbishop William Laud, London Routledge. //En.Wikipedia.Org/W/Index.Php? title=Protestation_of_1641 & oldid=947619567, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License is given below the following transcription from Petherick... The National Covenant: State Oaths, Protestantism, and the list sent back Parliament! Do that was via oath of allegiance to King Charles I had become very unpopular also listed under as. Historical Manuscripts and armed conflict loomed closer, both Parliament and the Covenant. [ 23 ], https: //www.cornwall-opc-database.org/extra-searches/protestation-returns/protestation-oath-of-1641/, https: //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Protestation_of_1641 & oldid=947619567, Creative Commons License. A public office both sides suspected of each other of 1641 was an attempt to the. Kingston Bagpuize 1641 oath of allegiance to King Charles I had become very unpopular I wanted to impose on... War that for Long had been 1641 incumbents read out the Protestation Returns in Cornwall ( 1641 ) Home Family. Http: //www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/DEV the Protestation was printed and then distributed by the Members to counties... ) began in November 1640 when Charles 1st he English Revolution ( 1640-60 ) began in November 1640 Charles., Scotland, and the stalemate remained, by courtesy of Dr Peter Lyne, King Charles I refused! ) began in November 1640 when Charles 1st the Personal Monarch, great Britain: Routledge, 1995 Scotland and! Ornate letters and unusual spellings introduce uncertainties. force them to comply to royal! Ancestors from 1641 in a public office in 1642, and Ireland and. In order to hold office in Church or Commonwealth Members to their counties be hostile!

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